1. Temporary water includes puddles caused by rain on a putting green.

         True or False


  1. If it is 75% certain that a ball that has not been found is in a penalty area, the player may take back-on-the-line relief from the penalty area under penalty of one stroke.

         True or False

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  1. TRUE:

TEMPORARY WATER: Any temporary accumulation of water on the surface of the ground (such as puddles from rain or irrigation or an overflow from a body of water) that:

  • Is not in a penalty area, and 
  • Can be seen before or after the player takes a stance (without pressing down excessively with his or her feet).

It is not enough for the ground to be merely wet, muddy or soft or for the water to be momentarily visible as the player steps on the ground; an accumulation of water must remain present either before or after the stance is taken.

Special cases:

  • Dew and Frost are not temporary water.
  • Snow and Natural Ice (other than frost) are either loose impediments or, when on the ground, temporary water, at the player’s option.
  • Manufactured Ice is an obstruction.
  1. FALSE:

A player must have knowledge or virtual certainty (95% likely) that his or her ball is in a penalty area in order to take back-on-the-line or lateral relief under Rule 17.1d. See Rule 17.1 and the definition of Knowledge or Virtual Certainty

Knowledge or Virtual Certainty: Known or virtually certain means more than just possible or probable. It means that either:

  • There is conclusive evidence that the event in question happened to the player’s ball, such as when the player or other witnesses saw it happen, or
  • Although there is a very small degree of doubt, all reasonably available information shows that it is at least 95% likely that the event in question happened.

“All reasonably available information” includes all information the player knows and all other information he or she can get with reasonable effort and without unreasonable delay.